The process The process

1 Survey Development (January-June 2011)

The survey comprised three questionnaires derived from an analytical framework and based on the results of a literature review. Two questionnaires focused on head teachers and class teachers at primary, lower secondary, upper secondary academic and upper secondary vocational education levels. They enabled comparison with the surveys used by the eEurope 2002 and 2005 initiatives (for example Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in European Schools), but were enriched and updated, addressing ICT use in and out of school. The third questionnaire was for two groups of students: one at ISCED 2 (grade 8 – 13.5 years old on average) and the other at ISCED 3 (grade 11 – 16.5 years old on average). Questionnaires contained only closed questions, on facts (access and use, for example) and on opinions (statements, for example) and were piloted in the UK and France, then revised and translated into the 23 official languages of the 31 countries.

2 Sampling (June-September 2011)

31 National Coordinators nominated by education ministries supported the sampling process. Using official school databases in each country, they prepared lists according to guidelines in a sampling manual, enabling 300 schools to be randomly selected at each of four levels: primary, lower secondary, upper secondary academic and upper secondary vocational level, in total around 1200 schools in each country. In small countries, all schools were included. Two replacement schools were identified for each school in case they were needed. In each school, the head teacher completed the head teacher questionnaire and one class was randomly selected: at grades 4 (with on average pupils aged 9.5 years old), 8 (age 13.5) and 11 (16.5). Three teachers (only one in primary schools) teaching that class were then randomly selected; they completed the teacher questionnaire. Only students in the grade 8 and 11 classes completed the student questionnaire. At school level, a school coordinator identified by the head teacher completed the randomised sampling of the class and the teachers in accordance with guidance materials in their language, supported by the national coordinator.

3 Data Collection (September-December 2011)

The data collection period began six weeks after the start of the school year 2011-12 and ended in December 2011. School leaders were contacted by email automatically sent by the online system. If they agreed to participate, a manual was sent by the system to a school coordinator who drew a sample at teacher and class level, and supported the head teacher (principal), up to three teachers and one class of students in completing the online surveys. National coordinators provided national helpdesk support for schools throughout this period and they were supported by the contractor. Problems and participation levels were constantly monitored, and remedial action taken when necessary.

4 Data analysis (January-July 2011)

Data analysis began in January 2012 after the online survey system was closed down and the data exported. The database was cleaned and data weighted. Unreliable data was identified, i.e. where numbers of responses are insufficiently high (e.g. below 40), and excluded. This had the effect of eliminating four countries from the survey: Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

In addition to cleaning and codification processes, standard statistical tools were applied to each query. The statistical analysis provided comparisons and trends analysis with past data collections, analysis of new data, and country by country analysis. The analysis was enriched with a qualitative analysis to identify facts to be investigated and hypotheses to be statistically tested by the data, and provide opportunities for understanding and clarification. The qualitative analysis used existing contextual data (e.g. household equipment from EUROSTAT) and information at country level (contained in the annual European Schoolnet Insight country reports, for example) to enrich the analysis. 

5 Reporting (March-October 2012)

Draft findings were presented and discussed at a stakeholder workshop in spring 2012 and the survey final report, 31 country profiles and an article delivered to the European Commission in autumn 2012. All materials, including manuals and the raw dataset, were published by the Commission in spring 2013 on the Digital Agenda website.

The ESSIE Team The ESSIE Team

Funded by the European Commission Directorate General Information Society and Media and supported by ministries of education, ESSIE is led by European Schoolnet and the University of Liège.

European Schoolnet:

  •     Patricia Wastiau
  •     Roger Blamire (project manager)
  •     Caroline Kearney
  •     Anja Balanskat
  •     Valentina Garoia

University of Liège:

  •     Prof. Christian Monseur
  •     Valérie Quittre
  •     Eva van de Gaer

Secure data processing facilities are provided by the Data Processing Center of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Hamburg.

Article about the survey Article about the survey

At the beginning of the data collection period, in order to inform schools and the wider education community, an article in 23 languages was widely distributed.

Download article (Word):  BG, CZ, DA, DE, EL, EN, ES, ET, FI, FR, HR, HU, IS, IT, LT, LV, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, SV, TR


Here is the article in English:

For the first time, teachers and students in schools throughout Europe are being systematically surveyed on their use and views on technology for learning.

Technology is increasingly used in schools, is a ‘must-have’ for young people, and its contribution to educational, social and economic goals is recognised in national and European policies, It is therefore important to have a clear understanding of the extent of its provision and use in schools across Europe. That is why the views of head teachers, teachers and students are being collected, through online questionnaires (also a first), for the Survey of Schools: ICT in Education.

The survey aims to provide answers to questions such as:

  • How do young people’s experiences of ICT compare in and out of school? Do they vary between countries?
  • How many classrooms are really online, equipped with interactive whiteboards, and laptops? How many teachers are at ease in them? What do they do, and what are the outcomes for learners?
  • What are the school and teacher factors associated with different patterns of ICT use? Can explanatory models be identified to inspire policy recommendations to support the development of 21st century teaching and learning methods and curricula?

The Survey aims to benchmark progress in ICT availability and use in 31 countries (the 27 countries of the European Union, plus Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Turkey). Some 1 200 primary and secondary schools have been selected in each country and head teachers of these schools should expect emails about the survey in their in-box this month. European Schoolnet’s Executive Director Marc Durando said: “We hope for a high response rate to ensure that the findings are based on a solid evidence base. All information obtained will be used solely for the survey and no individual will be identifiable.” In each country a national coordinator nominated by the ministry of education is working on the survey. The UK National Co-ordinator, Bill Gibbon, said: “I will be working with schools to help them complete the survey. We recognise that schools are busy places and every effort is being made to ensure that there is as little disruption as possible.”

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